Asthma–COPD overlap

Young man testing breathing function by spirometry
Young man testing breathing function by spirometry

Professor David Halpin presents an overview of the features, diagnosis and treatment of asthma–COPD overlap (ACO)

Key learning points

  • Some patients have asthma and COPD simultaneously, known as asthma–COPD overlap (ACO)
  • These patients experience frequent exacerbations, have worse quality of life, a more rapid decline in lung function and higher mortality than either asthma or COPD alone
  • Based on strict criteria, the prevalence is approximately 10% of people with airways disease
  • In patients with a similar number of features of both asthma and COPD, the diagnosis of ACO should be considered

Introduction

Some patients who present with chronic respiratory symptoms, particularly older patients, have a diagnosis and/or features of both asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), with airflow limitation that is not completely reversible after bronchodilatation.1–3 Some have an unequivocal history of poorly-controlled asthma that has resulted in fixed airflow obstruction, but which remains asthma. However, a small group of patients have risk factors for and clinical features of both diseases and the concept of an ‘overlap’ syndrome has been proposed.2,4–10

ACO

In 2015, both the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) and Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) reports included a section discussing the diagnosis and management of the so-called asthma–COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS). In the 2017 reports, the ‘S’ was dropped to emphasise the fact that a new separate disease was not being defined, rather that there is a group of patients who have both asthma and COPD simultaneously, that is, asthma–COPD overlap (ACO).11,12

Patients with ACO experience frequent exacerbations, have worse quality of life, a more rapid decline in lung function and higher mortality than either asthma or COPD alone.2,13 In addition, they consume a disproportionate amount of healthcare resources.14

The true prevalence of ACO is difficult to determine as different studies have used different diagnostic criteria. Some have used very loose definitions and claim prevalence of approximately 25–60% in people with asthma15 or COPD.16 However, using a more realistic definition, including people with clinical features of both asthma and COPD, exposure to a risk factor for COPD and where a firm diagnosis of asthma or COPD cannot be made, the prevalence is around 10–20% of people with airways disease.17,18

A firm diagnosis of asthma or COPD can be made in most patients on the basis of the history and examination and any relevant investigations. GOLD and GINA recommend identifying the features suggestive of a diagnosis of asthma or COPD. If there are three or more of the features listed for either asthma or COPD, and in the absence of those for the alternative diagnosis, there is a strong likelihood of a correct diagnosis of asthma or of COPD (see Table 1).11

Table 1. Syndromic diagnosis of airways disease11

Table data explaining features that, if present, favour asthmas or COPD

Spirometry confirms chronic airflow limitation but it is of almost no value in distinguishing between asthma with fixed airflow obstruction, COPD and ACO, even taking into account pre- and post-bronchodilator values. Some people with asthma have no or minimal response to short-acting bronchodilators,19 whilst some people with COPD show a large response.20

If a patient has similar numbers of features of both asthma and COPD, the diagnosis of ACO should be considered; however, there is no single diagnostic test or pathognomonic features to confirm the diagnosis.

Management approach

A trial of treatments should be based on the likely diagnosis and where there is still significant doubt, a safety first approach should be adopted and treatment for asthma should be offered. In people with asthma even seemingly ‘mild’ symptoms (compared with those of moderate or severe COPD) might indicate significant risk of a life-threatening attack.4,11 If ACO appears the likely diagnosis, it is recommended that the initial treatment should be based on asthma guidelines with low- or moderate-dose inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) and a long-acting beta-agonists (LABA) or long-acting muscarinic antagonists (LAMA) to be prescribed (ICS + LAMA is an unlicensed indication).4,11

If a patient has persistent symptoms and/or exacerbations despite treatment or if there are clinical features to suggest an alternative diagnosis such as bronchiectasis, pulmonary fibrosis, pulmonary hypertension or cardiovascular diseases, they should be referred for further evaluation.11

Our understanding of ACO is at a very preliminary stage and most studies of asthma and COPD management have had entry criteria that exclude people with ACO. There is an obvious need for more research on ACO.

 

This article was initiated and funded by Teva Respiratory. Teva have had no influence over content and the aforementioned trails. Topics and content have been selected and written by independent experts.


References
  1. Abramson MJ, Schattner RL, et al. Primary Care Respiratory Journal 2012;21(2):167-173.
  2. Gibson PG, Simpson JL. Thorax 2009;64(8):728-735.
  3. Marsh SE, Travers J, et al. Thorax 2008;63(9):761-767.
  4. Louie S, Zeki AA, et al. Expert Reviews in Clinical Pharmacology 2013;6(2):197-219.
  5. Miravitlles M, Soler-Cataluna JJ, et al. European Respiratory Journal 2013;41(6):1252-1256.
  6. Soler-Cataluna JJ, Cosio B, et al. Archivos de Bronconeumología 2012;48(9):331-337.
  7. Gibson PG, McDonald VM. Thorax 2015;70(7):683-691.
  8. Bateman ED, Reddel HK, et al. Lancet Respiratory Medicine 2015;3(9):719-728.
  9. Postma DS, Rabe KF. New England Journal of Medicine 2015;373(13):1241-1249.
  10. Zeki AA, Schivo M, et al. Journal of Allergy (Cairo) 2011;2011:861926.
  11. GINA/GOLD. Joint Report 2017 Asthma, COPD and Asthma-COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS). Available from: ginasthma.org/gina-reports/ (accessed 30 November 2017).
  12. Vogelmeier CF, Criner GJ, et al. American Journal of Respiratory Critical Care Medicine 2017;195(5):557-582.
  13. Kauppi P, Kupiainen H, et al. Journal of Asthma 2011;48(3):279-285.
  14. Andersen H, Lampela P, et al. The Clinical Respiratory Journal 2013;7(4):342-346.
  15. Kiljander T, Helin T, et al. NPJ Primary Care Respiratory Medicine 2015;25:15047.
  16. Shirtcliffe P, Marsh S, et al. Internal Medicine Journal 2012;42(1):83-88.
  17. Menezes AM, Montes de Oca M, et al. Chest 2014;145(2):297-304.
  18. Miravitlles M, Soriano JB, et al. Respiratory Medicine 2013;107(7):1053-1060.
  19. Heaney LG, Brightling CE, et al. Thorax 2010;65(9):787-94.
  20. Tashkin DP, Celli B, et al. European Respiratory Journal 2008;31(4):742-750.

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